| A|| B|| C|| D|| E|| F|| G|| H ||LABIAL|| p|| ph|| b|| f|| w|| m||APICAL|| t|| th|| d|| s|| z|| n|| l|| r||APICAL AFFRICATE|| ts||tsh|| dz||RETROFLEX|| T|| Th|| D|| Sh|| Zh|| L||RETROFLEX AFFRICATE|| C|| Ch|| J||PALATAL|| c|| ch|| j|| sh|| zh|| y||VELAR|| k|| kh|| g|| x|| gh||SUBVELAR|| q|| h||unasp.||asp.||voiced||un-|
|vibrants/taps||unvoiced||stops / affricates|| fricatives|
By reading this chart, it can be seen that the letter "p", the first letter on the chart, is a labial unaspirated unvoiced stop/affricate. Also, "gh" is a velar voiced fricative.
Note that ts, tsh, dz, etc. are independent phonemes in Khowar and are not merely combinations of two letters.
All nine capital letters in Khowar are retroflex. There are perhaps more retroflex phonemes in Khowar than in any other language of the world.
Here are the five vowels:
|FRONT||CENTRAL|| i || u || HIGH || e || o || MID || a ||LOW|
The above charts were originally developed by Knut Kristiansen and Rolf Theil Endresen of the University of Oslo in Norway. Minor modifications and the substitution of digraphs for the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet were made by David Munnings.