Jerome Bibuld and South Africa

As noted below, Jerome Bibuld proclaims that he was instrumental in having the Chess Federation for the Union of South Africa expelled from FIDE. I fully agree. Indeed, Mr. Bibuld was the driving force behind this. It is safe to say that without the efforts of Mr. Bibuld, this would never have happened.

The question is: Was this a good thing or a bad thing? Is this something for which one should justly be proud?
Jerome Bibuld, author of Bibud's Blacklist
Jerome Bibuld, author of the infamous "Bibud's Blacklist".

During that era, South Africa was expelled from many international sporting unions, such as the football and rugby unions. Nevertheless, individual players from South Africa were always allowed to compete around the world. South African golfers, tennis players and boxers competed internationally throughout the period of sanctions. Officially government sponsored teams, such as a South African Rugby team, were not allowed to compete, however.

Watu Kobese, Strongest Chess Player in Africa

Chess was different. As far as I am aware, chess was the only activity in which even individual players from South Africa were not allowed to compete outside of their own country. The reason for this derives from the structure of FIDE. FIDE is a federation of federations. Under the Campomanes regime, only chess players from countries who were members in good standing of FIDE were allowed to compete in international chess events. For example, Korea is not a member of FIDE, and therefore no chess player from Korea was allowed to compete in a FIDE rated chess event anywhere in the world, not even in an "open" event.

This was not the case under the predecessor of Campomanes, Frederik Olafsson of Iceland. Olafsson allowed chess players to compete, even if they were from a country which was not a member of FIDE, even if they were stateless altogether.

The perfect example of this was Korchnoi, who defected from the Soviet Union. When Korchnoi defected, he became stateless. When Korchnoi won the right to play a match for the world chess championship against Karpov, the Soviet Union objected, saying that since Korchnoi was not the representative of any country which was a member of FIDE, he should not be allowed to compete.

Olafsson overruled the Soviet claim and allowed Korchnoi to play chess. He even insisted that the wife of Korchnoi be allowed to leave the Soviet Union. The price Olafsson paid for this was that when the next election for FIDE President took place in 1982, the Soviet Union and all the Soviet block countries backed Campomanes and voted against Olafsson. Olafsson was voted out of office.

Dr. Lim Kok Ann, who became the Secretary General of FIDE under Campomanes, told me that it was the Korchnoi issue which got Olafsson defeated and Campomanes elected as President of FIDE.

Campomanes proceeded to pass a number of anti-defecting rules, including one rule which said that any player who switched countries would not be allowed to compete for a period of two years.

South Africa had been suspended from membership in FIDE even before Olafsson became president. The suspension of South Africa took place while Euwe of the Netherlands was President. Euwe traveled to South Africa to see the situation for himself. He first ruled that black players had the same rights to play chess as whites, and therefore South Africa could continue as a member in good standing. However, later, under intense political pressure, Euwe reversed himself and South Africa was suspended.

Nevertheless, South Africa was still a member, albeit a suspended member, of FIDE. As a result, chess players from South Africa could still go to Europe and compete as individuals. South Africa could not send teams to the Chess Olympiad, however.

In order to tighten the noose around the neck of all South African chess players, Bibuld started his campaign to have South Africa completely expelled from FIDE, so that not only South African teams but even South African chess players could not compete in open chess tournaments internationally.

Jerome Bibuld did not have the authority to sponsor a resolution before FIDE. Nevertheless, Mr. Bibuld was able to conduct his campaign as a result of his being an arbiter and minor official at every chess Olympiad during the decade or so in question. This gave him the time to canvass all of the African delegates and get their support behind his proposal. In addition, Mr. Bibuld had a lap dog sycophant at his disposal, Don Schultz, who was the US delegate to FIDE and who would do whatever Mr. Bibuld asked him to do. It seems unlikely that the USCF Policy Board was fully aware of the involvement of Mr. Schultz in his nefarious schemes. Most American chess players feel that everybody should be allowed to play chess. Mr. Schultz feels otherwise.

The strongest chess player in South Africa and indeed in all of Africa for a number of years has been Watu Kobese, who is black. Mr. Bibuld claims to be a great friend of Mr. Kobese, but it was because of Mr. Bibuld that Mr. Kobese was not allowed to play in international chess tournaments until relatively recently. Were it not for Mr. Bibuld, Mr. Kobese would almost certainly have won the international grandmaster title by now. Mr. Kobese clearly has the talent, the ability and the strength to become a grandmaster. Instead, however, Mr. Kobese does not even have the international master title. He is at the present moment on a tour of America trying to get title norms, something which he could have accomplished a decade ago were it not for Mr. Bibuld.

I am wondering why Mr. Kobese seems to consider Mr. Bibuld to be his friend. Perhaps Mr. Kobese does not know the role Mr. Bibuld played in stopping him from playing chess. More likely, Mr. Kobese is just being diplomatic.

Mr. Kobese right now is in Hawaii, having just completed in the Saitek Masters Tournament. Before that, Mr. Kobese competed in the World Open in Philadelphia and in the San Francisco International tournament. His results in all of these events have been excellent. Next, Mr. Kobese is competing in the United States Open Chess Championship, which starts today.

Here are some of the chess games of Mr. Kobese. Isn't it a terrible crime that, for all those years, Mr. Watu Kobese was not allowed to play chess, because of Mr. Jerome Bibuld?

Sam Sloan

>On this point, I absolutely agree with Mr. Bibuld.
>He was, in fact, instrumental in causing the expulsion of the South
>African Chess Federation from FIDE.
>Sam Sloan
>>Dear Mr. Praeder,
>>You ask:
>>>Did you support FIDE's boycott of the South African Chess
>>Forgive me for boasting, Mr. Praeder but, as the International Representative
>>of the Chess Association for the People of South Africa during the
>>anti-apartheid days, I think it is legitimate to say that I was instrumental in
>>causing the expulsion of the South African Chess Federation from FIDE.
>>This was in line with the United Nations resolution, repeated every year until
>>1991, requesting international sports and cultural bodies to boycott
>>representatives of the apartheid state.
>>("Editor" Liarry Parr strongly opposed the United Nations boycott and did his
>>best, by supporting the SACF, to prevent the PEOPLE of South Africa from
>>enjoying the pleasures of chess.)
>>Jerome Bibuld

[Event "3rd Mechanics Institute GM Invitational "]
[Site "San Francisco"]
[Date "1998.07.17"]
[Round "4"]
[White "Fedorowicz,John"]
[Black "Kobese,W"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "C47"]

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.d4 exd4 5.Nxd4 Bb4 6.Nxc6 bxc6 7.Bd3 d5 8.exd5
0-0 9.0-0 cxd5 10.Bg5 c6 11.Qf3 Bd6 12.Rfe1 Rb8 13.Rab1 h6 14.Bxf6 Qxf6 15.Qxf6
gxf6 16.Ne2 c5 17.c3 Be6 18.b3 Rb6 19.Bc2 a5 20.h3 Kg7 21.f4 f5 22.Kf2 Rfb8
23.Kf3 h5 24.Ng3 Kg6 25.Rbd1 h4 26.Nf1 d4 27.cxd4 Bd5+ 28.Kf2 cxd4 29.g4 hxg3+
30.Nxg3 Be6 31.Ne2 Bc5 32.Bd3 Rh8 33.Rh1 Rd6 34.Rdg1+ Kf6 35.Rg5 Rh4 36.Kg3 Rh6 37.h4 Rd8 38.Rc1 Bb4 39.h5 Ke7 40.Rc7+ Kd6 41.Ra7 Kc6 42.Kf3 Be1 43.Ng3 Bd5+
44.Ke2 Bxg3 45.Rxg3 Rxh5 46.Rxa5 Re8+ 47.Kd1 Rh1+ 48.Kd2 Rh2+ 49.Kd1 Re3
50.Rxe3 dxe3 51.Kc1 Rh1+ 52.Kc2 Be4 53.Kc3 Rc1+ 0-1

[Event "?"]
[Site "Groningen Wch-FIDE"]
[Date "1997.??.??"]
[Round "1"]
[White "Kobese,Watu"]
[Black "Sokolov,Andrei "]
[Result "1/2-1/2"]
[ECO "B80"]

1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 e6 3. d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 Nc6 5. Nc3 d6 6. g3 Nf6 7. Bg2 Bd7
8. O-O Nxd4 9. Qxd4 Qc7 10. Nd1 Be7 11. Ne3 O-O 12. a4 Bc6 13. Bd2 Rfd8
14. Bc3 Ne8 15. Rfe1 Bf6 16. Qd3 Rac8 17. a5 a6 18. Bxf6 Nxf6 19. Qd4 d5
20. e5 Nd7 21. f4 Bb5 22. f5 Qxe5 23. Qxe5 Nxe5 24. fxe6 fxe6 25. Nxd5 exd5
26. Rxe5 Rxc2 27. Bxd5+ Kh8 28. Bxb7 Rxb2 29. Rxb5 Rxb5 30. Bxa6 Rb2 31. Bf1
Ra8 32. a6 g6 33. Bg2 Ra7 34. h4 Kg7 35. Kh2 h5 36. Kh3 Kh6 37. Ra3 Rb6
38. Bf1 Rb2 39. Bg2 Rb6 40. Bf1 Rb2 41. Bg2 1/2-1/2

[Event "?"]
[Site "Linares Anibal Open"]
[Date "1998.??.??"]
[Round "3"]
[White "Kobese,Watu"]
[Black "Spraggett,Kevin "]
[Result "1-0"]
[ECO "B08"]

1. e4 g6 2. d4 d6 3. Nc3 Bg7 4. h3 a6 5. a4 Nf6 6. Nf3 O-O 7. Be3 Nc6 8. a5
Re8 9. d5 Nb8 10. Be2 e5 11. Nd2 Rf8 12. g4 Ne8 13. Nf1 Bf6 14. Qd2 Bh4
15. Bh6 Ng7 16. Rg1 f6 17. Ne3 Bg5 18. Bxg5 fxg5 19. Ng2 Nd7 20. Rh1 Qf6
21. Qe3 Rf7 22. Nb1 Nf8 23. Nd2 h5 24. c4 Nh7 25. c5 Bd7 26. Rc1 Raf8 27. Rf1
dxc5 28. Qxc5 c6 29. Rc3 cxd5 30. exd5 Rc8 31. Qb4 Rxc3 32. bxc3 hxg4
33. hxg4 Qd8 34. Ne4 Ne8 35. Bc4 Kg7 36. Ne3 Nhf6 37. f3 Qc8 38. Ng2 Rf8
39. Ke2 1-0

[Event "World Open"]
[Site "World Open, Philadelphia"]
[Date "1998.07.02"]
[Round "3: 7 day sch."]
[White "Kobese,W"]
[Black "Shahade, J"]
[Result "1-0"]
[ECO "B70"]
[PlyCount "59"]

1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 d6 3. d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 Nf6 5. Nc3 g6 6. Be2 Bg7 7. O-O Nc6 8.
Nb3 O-O 9. Re1 Be6 10. Bf1 Rc8 11. Nd5 Ne5 12. c3 Nc4 13. Nf4 Bd7 14. a4 Qe8
15. Nd2 Nxd2 16. Bxd2 Bc6 17. f3 e5 18. Nd3 d5 19. exd5 Nxd5 20. c4 Nb6 21. Bb4
Nxc4 22. b3 Nb6 23. Rc1 f6 24. Bxf8 Qxf8 25. a5 Nd7 26. b4 Kh8 27. Nf2 Rd8 28.
Qb3 Bh6 29. b5 Bxc1 30. Rxc1 1-0

[Event "WO 5-day"]
[Site "World Open, Philadelphia"]
[Date "1998.07.03"]
[Round "5"]
[White "Kobese, Watu"]
[Black "Kreiman, Boris"]
[Result "1/2-1/2"]
[ECO "B18"]
[WhiteElo "2430"]
[BlackElo "2576"]
[PlyCount "73"]

1. e4 c6 2. d4 d5 3. Nd2 dxe4 4. Nxe4 Bf5 5. Ng3 Bg6 6. Nf3 Nf6 7. h4 h6 8. h5
Bh7 9. Bd3 Bxd3 10. Qxd3 e6 11. Bd2 c5 12. O-O-O Nc6 13. Bc3 Qd5 14. dxc5 Qxd3
15. Rxd3 Bxc5 16. Bxf6 gxf6 17. Ne4 Be7 18. Nd6+ Bxd6 19. Rxd6 Rg8 20. g3 Rc8
21. a3 Ke7 22. Rd3 Ne5 23. Nxe5 fxe5 24. Rh4 Rc7 25. Re4 f6 26. Rde3 Rg5 27. g4
Rg8 28. Re2 Kf7 29. c3 Rd8 30. Rd2 Rd5 31. Kc2 Rcd7 32. Rde2 Rd3 33. R4e3 Rd1
34. f3 Rf1 35. Re1 Rf2+ 36. R1e2 Rf1 37. Re1 1/2-1/2

[Event "WO Merge"]
[Site "World Open, Philadelphia"]
[Date "1998.07.04"]
[Round "6"]
[White "Kobese,W"]
[Black "Shaked,Tal"]
[Result "1/2-1/2"]
[ECO "C19"]
[PlyCount "54"]

1. e4 e6 2. d4 d5 3. Nc3 Bb4 4. e5 c5 5. a3 Bxc3+ 6. bxc3 Ne7 7. Nf3 Nbc6 8.
Bd3 Qa5 9. Bd2 c4 10. Be2 O-O 11. O-O f6 12. exf6 Rxf6 13. Bg5 Rf7 14. Qd2 Bd7
15. Bf4 Ng6 16. Bg3 Qd8 17. h4 Nge7 18. h5 Nf5 19. Bf4 Qe7 20. Ng5 Rff8 21. g4
Nd6 22. f3 Nf7 23. h6 e5 24. dxe5 Ncxe5 25. Rf2 Rad8 26. Be3 Nc6 27. Bf1 Rfe8

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